The New Frontier
in Democratic Theory and Practice:
Organizational Forms that Simultaneously Optimize Autonomy & Community

©1997, Andrew Dinkelaker

Chapter 3a - The Four Quadrants and the 'Core' Psychological Types

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In the last chapter I demonstrated how the four Quadrants can be associated with Mitroff's four organizational forms -- bureaucracy, familial, R & D (matrix), and organic adaptive. In this chapter I will explore in greater depth how Mitroff developed these four forms from Jung's theory of psychological types. This exploration will lead into a discussion of Jung's four functions of consciousness. Further, from both a Jungian perspective and a more historical perspective that includes the Romantics, classical and contemporary anarchists, and artists from the dadaist and surrealist movements, two of those functions are found to be undervalued (even repressed) in Western society. This will contribute to some surprising conclusions about Quadrant four and its relationship with feeling and intuition.

Psychological Foundation for Mitroff's Organizational Forms

Mitroff, in his book Stakeholders of the Organizational Mind, attempts to bridge a fundamental division in the social sciences: "the strict separation between where the inside of the autonomous individual supposedly leaves off and where the outside of the collective or society begins."1 Mitroff goes on to state that the solution may be found in "the creation of a new way of studying and understanding the deeper features of human systems, that is, the motives for human behavior that lie deeper than those the current main body of organizational theory treats or is accountable for."2 Mitroff identifies a growing array of forces that either affect or are affected by an organization's actions, behaviors, and policies and uses the umbrella term "stakeholder(s)" to describe these forces. Therefore, Mitroff surmises, if an organization is to survive and grow, it must know how to develop the means to address the often contradictory needs associated with different stakeholders and stakeholder groups.

...a method is needed that builds off a starting point of disagreement -- indeed, regards such initial disagreement as a strength since it informs us of different options -- and works toward a final point of shared commitment to a set of possible solution alternatives.3

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Instead of assuming a prior consensus, Mitroff found it necessary to identify the different positions among parties. Using Jungian typology, Mitroff demonstrates that as different individuals can display a wide variety of personalities so too can different organizations have a specific character or personality. Therefore, the design and structure of an organization can be reflective of (or affected by) the personalities of individuals.

Jung's theory of psychological types provided Mitroff with a practical framework that can be directly related to the different management and organizational styles. For the sake of clarifying how Mitroff uses part of Jung's framework, it is important to briefly go into the theory of psychological type and how Jung came to develop this theory.

In the early part of this century, Carl Jung (1875 - 1961), who was deeply distressed over his breakup with Freud in 1913, sought to understand and analyze the reasons for it. Jung also devoted a great deal of thought to a similar quarrel that took place between Freud and Alfred Adler. The intensity of this quarrel, which led to Adler's withdrawal from Freud's circle in 1911, interested Jung in trying to determine how such irreconcilable differences could arise between two men who had both "been reared in Jewish homes on the outskirts of Vienna... were products of Vienna's intellectual movement, and both had pursued the same interests for at least a decade."4 As a result of this investigation, Jung devised a system which describes the most profound level of diversity possible in human beings on the basis of the differences in the dominant processes of consciousness. Jung discerned two different "orientations" that an individual could take toward the world ("extroversion" and "introversion") and four general "preferences" or "styles" of experiencing the world related to the four "functions" of consciousness (sensing, thinking, intuition, and feeling).5 It is the second grouping that Mitroff uses to support his frame of organizational forms. Fudjack and Dinkelaker, in their paper on diversity within organizations, give a concise description of the four functions:

'Sensing' involves taking information through one's senses, and attending to the details, the specifics (or 'facts'), of any situation. 'Intuition' takes in information by looking at the situation as a whole. More interested in inspiration than information, however, the intuitive function exhibits an interest in the hypothetical possibilities inherent in a situation. 'Thinking' involves making decisions on the basis of logic or analytical processes, and explaining situations on the basis of cause-effect relationships. 'Feeling' involves orienting oneself with respect to the situation by picking up on complex relationships and evaluating the situations on the basis of inherent value.6

Jung saw that these four functions were irreducible. It is understood that every individual possesses these four though their order, development, and degree of use will vary from

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individual to individual.7 Secondly, Jung states that the four functions form two interrelated pairs: 1) sensing (S) and intuition (N), and 2) thinking (T) and feeling (F). Further, in Jung's theory, the four functions are combined to create four "core" personality types (ST, SF, NT, and NF).

Mitroff describes the two interrelated pairs as the input-data dimension (S - N) and the decision-making dimension (T - F). Because each individual through their own development will demonstrate a "preference" for one in each pair, that preference will then be heavily relied upon (through habit) by the individual in "perceiving a situation" and then coming "to some conclusion about the data either by a logical, impersonal analysis -- thinking -- or by a subjective, personal process -- feeling."8 All the combinations of the two data-input modes (N and S) with the two decision-making modes (F and T) allows Mitroff to talk about the four "core" Jungian personality types and correspond them to the four organizational forms.

Mitroff, by applying a Jungian "core" psychological type to each of the four organizational forms, uncovers a more profound level of understanding human systems.

The ST organization will feel "most comfortable when attending to details, the specifics ... break[ing] every situation down into isolated bits and pieces" (sensation), and will "base their decisions on impersonal, logical modes of reasoning" (thinking).9

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The NT organization which shares the thinking function with the ST will therefore hold in common the capacity to base decisions on a logical or analytical basis and to have rules for correct conduct. However, the NT organizational form will have intuition as the input-data mode which will "concentrate their attention on the hypothetical possibilities in a situation rather than getting bogged down and constrained by details and an endless array of hard facts [sensation]."10

The SF organization will share the desire for details and hard facts (sensation) with the ST but will use feeling to reach a decision. Using the feeling function as a decision-making mode the SF organization will base its decisions on personal considerations by looking at the value of the situation stressing its individual uniqueness instead of using impersonal logical modes of reasoning (thinking).

Lastly, the NF organization will not share either the input-data mode nor the decision-making mode with that of the ST. Intuition will be valued over sensation in looking at a situation "as a whole" and concentrate on the possibilities of the situation rather than the hard facts and specifics. Decisions made through the feeling mode will be based on evaluating the impact that the decision will have on the complex interrelationships among those being affected.


Isabel Myers and Katharine Briggs, basing their conceptual framework on the typology of Carl Jung, created a tool called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for determining a person's Jungian type. Myers provides a description of the four "core" types in her book Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type that does not contradict Mitroff's definitions. The combinations of the four functions are the same though given slightly different terms for the two interrelated but independent pairs: the T-F preference as judgment (instead of decision-making), and the S-N preference as perception (instead of input-data).

Everyone has probably met all four kinds of people: ST people, who are practical and matter-of-fact; the sympathetic and friendly SF people; NF people, who are characterized by their enthusiasm and insight; and NT people, who are logical and ingenious.11

Loren Pedersen, a clinical psychologist, in his book Sixteen Men: Understanding Masculine Personality Types gives a useful description of each of the four core types' communication and relational styles. For the ST communication style, Pedersen states:

The content of the style involves direct messages about the realistic, concrete aspects of the subject. The language of ST s is highly specific and tends to be emotionally barren. Consequently, feeling expressiveness is blunted, controlled, or invisible to the

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listener. ST s also separate or minimize emotional aspects of messages coming from the speaker. They may even note or point out that the emotional "loading" of a speaker's content is irrelevant, or inappropriate to the facts of the communication.12

Pedersen describes the relational style of the ST as favoring relationships that are stable and predictable. The ST s' expectations are usually clear and they will often look for explicit signals and use material objects instead of feelings to demonstrate their value for commitment and care for others.

The SF communication style will often use "personal experience to discuss ideas, even when those ideas pertain to factual data.... [where the] preferred focus in communication is on relationships, other people, and the pursuit of happiness, harmony, and comfort."13 Communication is a means for expressing the value of relating. The relational style of the SF values concrete ways of expressing love, appreciation, and kindness and take the opinions and feelings of others seriously.

The NT like the ST, "prefer objectivity and don't want communication 'clouded' by emotional or feeling issues."14 In addition, the NT like to argue many sides of a problem and are very capable of seeing opposing points of view. Ideas, tasks, and impersonal events tends to be the content of their communication. The relational style of the NT can appear to others as an insensitive "know-it-all" type who continually communicate with great precision their thoughts and ideas. Because of the lack of developed feeling in NT s, this will tend to contribute to their disregard of the thoughts and feelings of others. "They [NT s] value change as an integral part of relating, and want partners to be inspiring and challenging."15

Lastly, there is the communication style of the NF. According to Pedersen, "NF s discuss insights, concepts, and ideas, particularly as they pertain to other people, the human condition, and what is possible in the future."16 NF s tend to use metaphors, analogies, and many-sided examples to bring home their point. The relational style of the NF is empathic, warm, and caring and is perhaps the most egalitarian of the four core types.

An elaboration of the NF type

According to Jungian theory, even though we possess all four of the functions, each person will demonstrate a "preference" to one of the four which Jung calls the "dominant" function. "Calling one of the functions dominant in an individual means that for that person it is the primary 'mode of organizing and suffering life' in the words of James Hillman, a contemporary Jungian psychologist."17 The dominant function is in many cases assisted by one of the two functions of the second pair. Therefore, if the

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dominant function is one of the judgment functions then the "secondary" (or auxiliary) function will be one of the perception functions. In the case of the NF core type either intuition or feeling is the dominant function with the other taking the role of auxiliary function. Though the secondary function is somewhat less developed, the two combined make for how an individual experiences and organizes life. The remaining two functions (for the NF type would be S and T) can be rated according to their development and frequency of usage in the individual and are referred to respectively as the "tertiary" and "inferior" function. Jung postulated that when the dominant function of the individual is one in the pair (S-N or T-F), then the inferior function will, by definition, be its partner in the pair. For example, if F is dominant, then T is inferior.

Understanding that the dominant function will be the most refined, differentiated and accessible to consciousness, then the inferior function will be for the individual the least conscious, crass, undifferentiated, and accessed with the least amount of skillfulness. Marie-Louise Von Franz, a contemporary Jungian psychologist, states that: the realm of the inferior function one is overwhelmed, one is unhappy, one has one's great problem, one is constantly impressed by things... to ask what is the greatest cross for the person, where is his [sic] greatest suffering, where does he [sic] feel that he [sic] knocks his head against the wall and suffers hell? That generally points to the inferior function.18

Therefore, the NF type will generally have a difficult time adhering to rigidly defined roles and structures that compartmentalizes (T) along with focusing on "hard facts" and concrete data of the present situation (S).

Instead, the NF type will be interested in exploring the possibilities of relationships (i.e. in the form of utopias) and in social rituals that lead to cultural transformation. The intuition side will contribute to exposing latent potentials of a situation while the feeling side will focus on the various interconnections and relationships that arise out of a given situation. There is an innate interest in wanting to do things differently (intuition) based on a social harmony that recognizes the value of the individual (feeling).

NFs are constantly perceiving the world through interpersonal relationships and the symbolic nature of reality. Symbols and rituals come to represent much more than simply the objects or motions themselves, they are a way of releasing the creative energy of what is "unborn". The NF type finds that it is important to develop various means (art, music, ritual) for transformation and change in order to reach one's potential. Finding and discovering meaning through the creation of myths, rituals, and symbols is combined with an "ethics" that arises out of valuing the intrinsic worth both of the individual and of the interrelationship of the whole in a unified "culture" (or field).

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The Devaluation of the NF

Jung himself thought that feeling and intuition were undervalued in our society and that a necessary evolution of society would have to be founded upon revalorizing these two functions. He remarks that "the reaction which is now beginning in the West against the intellect in favor of feeling, or in favor of intuition, seems to me a mark of cultural advance, a widening of consciousness beyond the too narrow limits of a tyrannical intellect."19 Jung's assessment was adopted and frequently repeated within Jungian circles. Marie-Louise Von Franz, a contemporary Jungian psychologist, talks about the one-sided development of Western society:

The whole problem is an ethical one; it is a problem of differentiating our feelings. Western civilizations of late have one-sidedly developed extroverted thinking and sensation in their technology, and introverted sensation-thinking in their theoretical studies. Intuition is also not quite suppressed because it is needed for finding new creative ideas. But feeling and the whole world of Eros, love, is in a sorry plight indeed. I even think that at present everything depends on whether we succeed in developing our feeling and social Eros or not.20

Jungian analyst James Hillman believes that in contemporary Western society "the feeling function is in decay".21 Hillman is concerned that "in our extroverted and masculine-oriented culture with its collective repression of feeling"22 the degeneration of the feeling function is a key problem of our time. "Perhaps it was not so preposterous", Hillman continues, "to claim that the profession of psychotherapy owes its existence to the inadequate and undeveloped state of the feeling function in general."23 Hillman agrees with Jung's assertion that valorizing this function is a cultural advance.

Robert Denhardt, an organizational development theorist, in his book In the Shadow of Organization refers to the prevailing paradigm in organizations - the basic assumptions regarding organization - as the ethic of organization and says:

Specifically, as the ethic of organization gives preference to decisions (1) on the basis of specific "factual" data, and (2) in line with strict logical procedures, there is an obvious emphasis on two of the four [Jungian] functions: sensing and thinking. Moreover, the functions of intuition and feeling are neglected. This means, first of all, that persons of these latter psychological predispositions who find themselves in highly rationalized bureaucratic systems are located in a situation which simply do not match their preferences. These individuals will consequently be subject to special pressures. Whitmont states the problem in this way: "In our present time and culture, environmental influence is primarily exerted in the direction of extroversion and of

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thinking and sensation. We quite often find that a distorted typological adaptation has been pressed into these molds. The type most likely to be injured in this respect -- victims of our current Western cultural bias -- are those of introverted feeling and intuition."

But the injury is not exclusively to the less preferred types. The ethic of organization obviously favors a general shift toward the extremes of sensing and thinking -- toward the 'psychological type' of the machine, a perfect sensing-thinking combination. While those who are initially inclined toward these functions may find the process of adaptation easier, they too will be limited in their growth to the extent that they are prevented from developing a more complete or 'whole' personality. The ethic or organization, therefore, provides a significant impediment to the individual's effort to achieve wholeness.24


This assertion of feeling and intuition as being impoverished and undervalued in our society did not arise first with Carl Jung. Jung was preceded in this by the Romantics (mid to late 1700s to mid 1800s). Romanticism, as exemplified by Fredrick Schlegel (1772-1829) and William Blake (1757-1827), was a reaction to the Enlightenment and its emphasis on reason and a rational-empirical model (ST) in science. "The Romantics celebrated the politics of disorder.... in philosophy objective reason [T] is replaced by the dark subjectivity of feeling [F]; in politics change [N] per say is seen as inherently more valuable than the stability of law and tradition [S]."25

According to Schlegel, the Enlightenment conception of understanding is insufficiently organic. What we need is a style that takes into account the "fact" that 1) all truth is relative, 2) everything is self-contradictory, 3) the essential quality of reality is eternal becoming, and 4), everything ought, therefore, be organic.26

Steven Alford, in his book Irony and the Logic of the Romantic Imagination, examines romantic irony as a principle of style in the work of Fredrick Schlegel and William Blake. Irony as a form of paradox can be used to develop vision and imagination (N). In Blake's work, for instance, "irony functions to suspend the understanding [T] to make way for an active vision [N]."27 According to Alford, "the key to understanding the shift from understanding [T] to imagination is irony [N]."28 Eleanor Wilner echoes similar thoughts on Blake, in her book Gathering the Winds: Visionary Imagination and Radical Transformation of Self and Society, asserting that Blake's romantic vision "prefigures

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Jung's view of the imagination [N] as the key to... the integration of the human psyche [and the] renewal of society...", stating that this integration of the psyche "includes a harmonious social vision [NF] since the psyche's internal form is interpersonal".29 The "primal error" that Blake saw, according to Wilner, involved "the dissociation of man's reason [T] from his emotions [F]".30 Furthermore, in Blake's view,

...from the seventeenth century on, Western man, or at least the elite who created society's forms, demoted the dream life [N] to the world of illusion and unreason, and with the growth of the bourgeois, capitalistic world view, increasingly saw poetry and art... as the frivolous luxury of the effeminate dreamer...31

Jack Zipes in his book, The Great Refusal: Studies of the Romantic Hero in German and American Literature, comments on the nature of the romantic hero: "Essentially, he [sic] feels compelled to create a world of his [sic] own, one different from the society that has failed him [sic]. ...Creativeness is basic to the romantic hero, and the creative spectrum encompasses many types of individuals who, at first glance, might not seem to possess this instinct. To create requires craftsmanship, ingenuity, imagination."32 Within the romantic tradition, the hero in confronting the limitations of a world governed by rational-empirical laws promotes and develops his/her own capacity "to dream the impossible dream."

Given the characteristic qualities of the romantics as connected to both feeling and intuition it is important to note that many of these NF writers possessed revolutionary zeal: "Revolutionary in form, revolutionary in statement. Here we have the basis for comprehending the rise of the romantic fairy tale in Germany ...all the romantics sought to contain, comprehend and comment on the essence of the changing times in and through the fairy tale...".33 Zipes, continues this thought by stating that

...the folk tale itself was revolutionized to enable the romantics to depict the ambivalent nature of the rise of enlightened ideas, rationalism, and free enterprise. This undertaking was both conscious and unconscious and represented one of the major accomplishments of the romantics.34
The romantics (specifically the American romantics of 1828 to 1860) were found to be in support of democracy, "they were conscious of the monumental character of the democratic experiment...",35 and against heteronomy, "...the ANTI AUTHORITARIAN impulses of the romantics remained the governing ones even when they made great

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compromises with the state and church."36 In addition, while being sensitive to their need to create a harmonious social vision the romantics found it necessary to confront and "criticize the dehumanizing forces of rationalism...".37 Lastly, it is important to distinguish the German romantic fairy tale, which was repressed by the Nazi regime as subversive, as qualitatively different from the classical (also known as the "traditional") fairy tale which was not repressed by the Nazis.

Unlike the romantics, who conceived new utopian worlds out of the breakdown of a social order reflected in their tales, [German] fairy tale writers for adults between 1919 and 1933 did not or could not posit utopian solutions ...the critical tradition of the romantic fairy tale [during Nazi control] was deprived of a public and made to appear nefarious.38
The dichotomy set up between the Romantics and those of the Enlightenment was also experienced during the turn of this century between science and the modernist movement within art. In particular, Dadaism (1916-1922) and Surrealism (circa. 1920) derive from the romantic tradition:

The origin of surrealism lies in the art of the romantic era, which succeeded the austere classicism of the revolutionary period in France at the end of the 18th century. Romanticism was a reaction against the classical views of nature as essentially benign and humans as rational beings....39
Suzi Gablik, a contemporary artist and writer, states that "when the Surrealists juxtaposed disjunctive and decontextualized images, they wanted to shatter the parameters of the rational, everyday world and to spark off new and unexpected poetic meanings."40 The Dadaists, a majority of whom were also anarchists, stressed absurdity and the role of the unpredictable in artistic creation: "[their] basic intent was to capture the elusive experience of spontaneity."41 "As J.C. Middleton has pointed out, the paradoxical, nonsensical gestures of the Dadas were... a way of asserting their absolute freedom from reason and logic."42 Manuel Grossman in his book Dada points to a key feature found within the Dadaist movement:

Although certain of the Dadas swore their allegiance solely to the forces of the irrational, while others wavered on the brink, there was one idea which all of the

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members of the Dada movement more or less held in common: this was what the German art historian Werner Haftmann has called 'the autonomy of the self.'43

In describing Dadaist Hugo Ball, Hohendahl states that "Ball's interest in Nietzsche... was linked with an enthusiastic faith in the possibility of regenerating a rationalized world [T] through the medium of intuitive [N], Dionysian art."44 Ball in his artistic endeavors combined feeling and intuition through his search for "an empathic art [F] based on 'purely instinctive creation' [N], rather than on rationality...".45 Eunice Lipton, in her book about Pablo Picasso, identifies the inspiration and purpose behind the symbolist and cubist art movements of which Picasso was a central figure in their development, stating that:

It would seem that in the desire to flee from the materiality of positivism [a more radical form of the rational-empirical model], the symbolists, and the cubists in more extreme form, sought a vocabulary which would instead evoke emotion, intuition, and idea.46

These movements, playing off each other, commonly understood the artist to play an essential and active role in social transformation. The artist was defined as a social revolutionary.

The anarchist influence in the modernist movement of art at the turn of the century was substantial. It found its purest and strongest expression in Dadaism circa. 1916. Gustav Landauer (1870-1919) actively contributed to a "synthesis of anarcho-socialism and volkisch romanticism."47 It is these two streams that also come together in Dadaism which is generally acknowledged as the culmination of anarchist / romanticist art.

In addition, Gustav Landauer was particularly influenced by the German romantics. Eugene Lunn, in his book about Landauer points out that:

There was more, however, to the watershed of 1500 than the separation of art [N] from community life [F]. In Landauer's view, so consistent with those of the romantics Novalis and Friedrich Schlegel, it was the religious and political developments of the Reformation of the sixteenth century which fully ushered in the modern age of spiritual decay and social atomization. ...Landauer emphasized that it was only in the period of the Reformation that Roman law was fully utilized as a rationalization for the replacement of corporate and local independence by authoritarian centralization [ST].48

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Furthermore, Landauer sought to extend the ideas initially presented by the romantics through stressing the notion of the individual emerging out of an organic social field. Lunn states:

...instead of the concept of the isolated atomistic individual Landauer substituted the romantics' view of the unique personality that is a 'vital part of a larger organic whole' and is, in its own way, an image of humanity. 'Humanity,' he wrote, 'is visible' through 'emerging, changing, and again disappearing' particular men [sic]. In this way Landauer felt that he had demonstrated that ... 'anarchism' and 'socialism' were, in fact, interdependent. The basis of his demonstration was a restatement of the organicist philosophy of romanticism."49

Landauer was described by German Shakespeare scholar Levin Schucking as having "rich feelings and a strong imagination".50 Earlier in his life, Landauer expressed the desire to "be able to sink myself wholly into the soul of another, to seek to understand how it is possible to realize the universal love of man [sic] which so many have spoken, but which is practiced by so few, a love that is so different from that other, egoistic kind."51 Based on these statements it would not be too far off to guess that Landauer was in fact an NF.

It is interesting to note that the earliest anarchist treatise written by William Godwin (1756-1836) appeared during the same time that the Romantic period was just emerging. During the 19th century there was a school of thought that attempted to connect ethics as the quintessence of what could be defined as an advanced feeling function. Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921), an anarchist who was particularly interested in this connection, remarked that Schopenhauer, Hume, Adam Smith, and others assert that it is in "feeling that the basis of all moral tendencies lie."52 Furthermore, Kropotkin argues

Life in societies inevitably engenders in men [sic] and animals the instincts of sociality, mutual aid -- which in their further development in men [sic] become transformed into the feeling of benevolence, sympathy, love [F]. It is these feelings and instincts that give rise to human morality.53

Kropotkin saw the feeling of human solidarity as an eternal principle: "In short, neither the crushing powers of the centralized State nor the teachings of mutual hatred and pitiless struggle which comes adorned with the attributes of science from obliging philosophers and sociologists could weed out the feeling of human solidarity [F], deeply lodged in Man's [sic] understanding and heart, because it has been nurtured by all over preceding

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evolution."54 Regarding Kropotkin himself, Catherine Breskovskaia comments that "he is admired as a prophet whose every word was in accord with his pure life", and Paul Reclus sums up his character thusly: "Kropotkin's main characteristic was ... his kindness. It overflowed from his eyes, enveloped one, warmed one instantly."55 In addition, "for Galois, the 'spontaneous' dimension of Kropotkin's nature has three aspects: progress, freedom, and feeling. ...Spontaneity clearly implies cooperation and is also closely related to the concept of freedom which must be socially and not individually defined."56 Here we find that Kropotkin's work centered around cooperation and mutual aid reinforces the freedom for spontaneous activity based on an inner process [feeling] and not on external manipulation from an outside force. The above passages clearly demonstrate that his character and his thoughts were organized around an NF nucleus.

Emma Goldman, an anarchist and feminist (1869-1940), was very concerned about the effects the pervasive intrusion of the State and the rise of scientific management were having on women and on society in general. Goldman, in seeking answers to these concerns, was greatly influenced by the works of Peter Kropotkin and playwright/poet Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906). "Whereas Kropotkin provided a theory of mutual co-operation, Ibsen supplied Goldman with a theory of individual freedom."57 Bonnie Haaland in her book on Emma Goldman says, "the key to understanding Goldman's theoretical model of anarchism is an appreciation of her view of the interdependence of social organization and individual 'well being.'"58 In addition, Goldman continually refers to the need for love in productive relationships. It was this assertion that a contemporary of Goldman, Alexandra Kollontai (1883-1952), a Russian feminist, broadened by stating that "while love is important, love is only one aspect of the life, and must not be allowed to overshadow the other facets of the relationships between individual and collective."59 Along a similar theme, Goldman in responding to Alexander Berkman's "assessment that feeling, not reason , governs people's lives", agreed and stated, "if you do not feel a thing, you will never guess its meaning."60 Haaland also describes Goldman's dismay with the growth of the State and of scientific management:

...viewing the growth of bureaucracy as a process which would divert individuals' attention and preoccupation from their inner emotional and sexual desires ...destroying or deadening the libidinal impulses and the emotional side of life.61
For Goldman, what was of primary importance was the process of continual reconciliation of autonomy with community rather than obtaining some goal or finality.

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David Thoreau Wieck, a contemporary anarchist, develops even further the relationship between feeling and anarchism. In his essay "The Negativity of Anarchism" he states that "an idea like anarchism... although capable of articulation, it is not essentially conceptual, certainly not rationalistic. At its core, as its matter, as its material source, is feeling -- feelings about relations among human beings, about personal identity and worth, about human being."62 Furthermore, Wieck continues, "to say that this Idea [anarchism] is a thought seeking its realization is to say that it demands a maximum of social [F] inventiveness and practical imagination [N]...".63 In order to draw attention to this definition of anarchism Wieck finds it necessary to make a distinction between a "rationalized belief-system that serves to justify... the dominance and power of some social group or some institutional c omplex"64 which he defines as "ideology" with that of an "Idea" (like anarchism) whose full meaning comes out of a process of continual realization. Similarly, Wieck describes ethics as resolving itself into a faith and trust in each other for which anarchism establishes the conditions for the free expression of ourselves into new human beings.

If we think of voluntary action, choice, decision, autonomy, as central to the meaning of being human -- as the main philosophical traditions assert -- then anarchism can be understood as seeking to dissolve those institutions of power that make life-decisions for us, that offer to substitute themselves for our freedom and relieve us of burdens of responsibility, and do so whenever they successfully coerce us to accord our will to their demands. Then, anarchism is expressive of a will to restore, and/or create, personhood and human being...65

Because our culture is organized around hierarchies and ideologies of power, Weick surmises, "...we do not fully experience our own humanity, and this in turn is because we cannot fully experience the humanity of others so long as we exist in the many interlocking relations of masterhood and servitude."66 Anarchism, through the desire to deconstruct these "interlocking relations" based on power prepares the ground for bringing into consciousness, through annunciation, the experience of human relationships based on faith, trust, and mutual cooperation.

Only then do we realize the meaning of subjectivity in another or, authentically, in ourselves. By that move, we bring love to reality, for such recognition of subjectivity is what I understand by love.67

Suzi Gablik echoes Wieck's thoughts about the need to bring into awareness subjectivity and our essential interconnectedness. In addition, Gablik finds fault with our

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current addiction to rational modes of perception which have, since the Enlightenment, "been organized around the hegemony of a technological and materialist world view...".68 As a result of our over identification with rationalism, Gablik adds, we have lost our connection with myth-making, communal feelings, and visionary experiences. Gablik believes that there is a way out, a way that is strikingly parallel to Wieck's definition of love.

...the cultural recovery of the feminine principle is the key to recovery from the institutional oppressiveness of patriarchy from which we are all suffering.... This feeling function -- the reawakening of our capacity to be compassionate -- is crucial to finding our way out of the evolutionary mess we're in. The emerging new myth in our time would seem to be the myth of empathy [F] -- the capacity to share what another is feeling, to live in the consciousness of our interconnectedness.69

Furthermore, because the current rational-empirical Cartesian paradigm is nearly incapable of understanding reality on a relational level there is a strong need to express and articulate how this would be reflected in modern art. Gablik adds,

The ability to enter into another's emotions, or to share another's plight, to make their conditions our own, characterizes art in the partnership mode. You cannot exactly define it as self-expression -- it is more like relational dynamics. Once relationship is given greater priority, art embodies more aliveness and collaboration, a dimension excluded from the solitary, essentially logocentric discourses of modernity.70

Art in the partnership mode is what Gablik has termed empathic art which is similar in tone to Dadaist Hugo Ball's description.

Given Gablik's assessment, in addition to the Romantics and anarchists, a strong argument can be made that we have yet to recover from the age of enlightenment and its overemphasis of ST to the detriment of the NF. Nadia Choucha in her book Surrealism and the Occult says:

Breton stresses in his book the need for a return to the "feminine" values such as emotion [F] and intuition [N] as a solution to humanity's problems, which have been caused by a surplus of "masculine" values such as reason and ideology. These values are not exclusive to men and women, but have come to be associated with each of the sexes. The qualities of intuition and irrationalism have been identified with the female of the species and as a result have become devalued because of this association with the politically and economically powerless.71

Returning to the Jungians, we find that at the forefront of Jungian psychological theory is the creation of a feminine ego based on the devalued functions of NF. Jungian analyst Laurie Schapira heralds the advent of a post-patriarchal "feminine" ego that is "grounded in the emotional [F], imaginal [N] matrix of the Self."72

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1. Mitroff. (1983). p. 1.
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2. Mitroff. (1983). p. 4.
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3. Mitroff. (1983). p. 5.
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4. Mattoon. (1981). p. 54.
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5. Collected Works of Carl Jung. Vol. 6 (1933). Chapter 10. Mitroff (1983) explains that the typology's "fundamental purpose is to give people a framework and a series of concepts -- a vocabulary -- for recognizing and understanding their differences. The typology is not meant to impose a rigid classification of personality types nor does it imply permanent fixity throughout one's life." p. 66.
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6. Fudjack and Dinkelaker. (1994). "Toward a Diversity of Psychological Type in Organization". p. 6.
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7. Loren Pederson, a clinical psychologist, describes that "all the various functions arise from an originally unconscious state and find their way into consciousness only gradually. Since the functions arise in a developmental way, the primary or "dominant" function is the most likely to become conscious first. For this reason it is the most available to the consciousness. p. 16. (1993). Sixteen Men: Understanding Masculine Personality Types.
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8. Mitroff. (1983). pp. 57-8.
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9. Mitroff. (1983). pp. 56-7.
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10. Mitroff. (1983). p. 57.
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11. Isabel Briggs Myers. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. p. 6.
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12. Pedersen. (1993). p. 59.
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13. Pedersen. (1993). p. 118
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14. Pedersen. (1993). p. 91.
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15. Pedersen. (1993). p. 94.
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16. Pedersen. (1993). p. 151.
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17. Fudjack and Dinkelaker. (1994). p. 7.
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18. Marie-Louise Von Franz. (1993). Psychotherapy. p. 34.
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19. Carl Jung. (1931) - revised 1962. The Secret of the Golden Flower. p. 85.
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20. Stanislav Grof. ed. (1988). Human Survival and Consciousness Evolution. p. 30.
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21. Marie-Louise Von Franz & James Hillman. (1971). Lectures on Jung's Typology. p. 171.
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22. Von Franz and Hillman. (1971). p. 147.
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23. Von Franz and Hillman. (1971). p. 157.
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24. Robert B. Denhardt. (1981). In the Shadow of Organization. p. 52.
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25. Steven Alford. (1984). Irony and the Logic of the Romantic Imagination. p. 3.
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26. Alford. (1984). p. 10.
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27. Alford. (1984). p. 13.
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28. Alford. (1984). p. 7.
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29. Wilner. (1975). p. 54.
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30. Wilner. (1975). p. 57.
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31. Wilner. (1975). p. 66.
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32. Jack Zipes. (1970). The Great Refusal: Studies of the Romantic Hero in German and American Literature. p. 21.
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33. Jack Zipes. (1979). Breaking the Magic Spell. p. 79.
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34. Zipes. (1979). p. 64.
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35. Zipes. (1970). p. 145.
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36. Zipes. (1979). p. 68.
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37. Zipes. (1979). p. 94.
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38. Jack Zipes. (1983). Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion. p. 142.
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39. Nadia Choucha. (1991). Surrealism and the Occult. p. 7.
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40. Suzi Gablik. (1991). The Reenchantment of Art. p. 30.
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41. Manuel Grossman. (1971). Dada. p. 162.
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42. Grossman. (1971). p. 163.
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43. Grossman. (1971). p. 162.
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44. Rex Last. (1973). German Dadaist Literature: Kurt Schwitters, Hugo Ball, Hans APR. p. 82
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45. John Elderfield. (1974). Flight Out of Time: A Diary by Hugo Ball. p. xxxiii">
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46. Eunice Lipton. (1976).Picasso Criticism 1901-1939. p. 95.
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47. Lunn. (1973). p. 111
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48. Lunn. (1973). pp. 186-7.
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49. Lunn. (1973). p. 110.
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50. Charles Maurer. (1971). A Call to Revolution. p. 156.
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51. Lunn. (1973). p. 33.
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52. Peter Kropotkin, ed. Lebedev. (1992). Ethics: Origin and Development. pp. 232-43
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53. Kropotkin. (1992). p. xxvii.
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54. Stephen Osofsky. (1979). Peter Kropotkin. p. 89.
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55. Osofsky. (1979). p. 21.
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56. Osofsky. (1979). p. 114.
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57. Bonnie Haaland. (1993). Emma Goldman: Sexuality and the Impurity of the State. p. 16.
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58. Haaland. (1993). p. 6.
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59. Haaland. (1993). p. 42.
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60. Haaland. (1993). p. 44.
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61. Haaland. (1993). pp. 90-1.
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62. David Thoreau Wieck. (date not given). "The Negativity of Anarchism". p. 28.
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63. Wieck. p. 29.
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64. Wieck. p. 26.
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65. Wieck. p. 43.
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66. Wieck. p. 54.
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67. Wieck. p. 54.
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68. Gablik. (1991). p. 46.
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69. Gablik. (1991). p. 123.
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70. Gablik. (1991). p. 106.
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71. Nadia Choucha. (1992). Surrealism and the Occult. p. 100.
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72. Laurie Schapira. (1988). The Cassandra Complex. p. 58.
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